Bonding

Free Articles

ChemSumer: Sticky Situation: The Wonders of Glue
December 2006 (pp 8–10)

Author: Linda Shiber
Chemistry Connections:
Bonding, Organic/Biochemistry, Reactions, Solids/Liquids/Gases
Description:
Glues produced “biologically” by animals as well as chemical mixes from human experimentation are explained in chemical terms. Even cilia of geckos utilize induced dipoles (London dispersion) between cilia and surfaces for attachment.

Linus Pauling: American Hero
October 2007 (pp 8–10)

Author: Sarah Vos
Chemistry Connections:
Bonding, History/Biography
Description:
Describes three major phases of Pauling’s work. His research into the nature of chemical bonds revealed that bonds could exhibit properties on a continuum between pure covalent and pure ionic. His work on the nature of proteins established molecular biology as a discipline and also shed new light on weak intermolecular forces, especially hydrogen bonding. Also discussed his work on hemoglobin and Vitamin C. Third major area of the article is Pauling’s controversial anti-war activities. Notes that Pauling is the recipient of two Nobel Prizes—one for Chemistry and the other for Peace.

Nanotechnology’s Big Impact
October 2009 (pp 15–17)

Author: Nadia Halim
Chemistry Connections:
Bonding, Organic/Biochemistry
Description:
Nanotechnology utilizing the elements carbon and silicon create nanostructures (1-100 nanos large) for use in electronics, medicine (drug delivery systems), clean energy production (solar cells). Three basic structures are nanotubes, nanowires, and fullerenes (“Bucky balls”). Construction of a nanostructure by electron beam lithography and photolithography is illustrated.

Articles available on the ChemMatters DVD

Green Gasoline: Fuel from Plants
February 2010 (pp 13–15)

Author: Michael Schirber
Chemistry Connections:
Bonding, Organic/Biochemistry, Reactions, Thermochemistry
Description:
Describes how molecules, like cellulose, found in plants like switchgrass and plant “leftovers” like corn stalks, can be made into gasoline. Uses lots of graphics to explain the use of zeolite catalysts in the process of stripping oxygen atoms from carbohydrate molecules to make hydrocarbon molecules that, in turn, make gasoline. Distinguishes green gasoline from biofuels like ethanol. Describes benefits of green gasoline.

Hollywood’s Special Effects—How Did They Do That?
December 2009 (pp 5–8)

Author: Diana Lutz
Chemistry Connections:
Bonding, Organic/Biochemistry, Reactions, Solids/Liquids/Gases, Thermochemistry
Description:
Describes how various special effects are created for movies, including fake snow, fake skin, fire and explosions. Some chemistry is detailed to explain how the materials are produced.

Natural, Braided, Bleached, Colored, Straight, and Curly Hair: Thanks to Chemistry
October (2008 15–17)

Author: Lois Fruen
Chemistry Connections:
Bonding, Organic/Biochemistry
Description:
Talks about various chemicals and the roles they play in hair styling. Hair conditioners, antihumectants, styling products, hair dyes and hair straighteners are all described. Chemical structures are shown for many of the products. Bond types involved in hair are described.

The Quest for a Clean Drink
April 2008 (pp 4–6)

Author: Christen Brownlee
Chemistry Connections:
Bonding, Metals/Nonmetals, Reactions, Solutions, Sustainability
Description:
Tells of the problems in India and Bangladesh of obtaining clean drinking water, starting with contamination of surface water, followed by arsenic contamination of groundwater. Then discusses three different practical methods of purifying the water to remove the arsenic, all of which are being used successfully in these countries. The chemistry, including equations of the processes is illustrated.

Paintball: Chemistry Hits Its Mark
April 2007 (pp 4–7)

Author: Brian Rohrig
Chemistry Connections:
Bonding, Solids/Liquids/Gases, Solutions
Description:
Describes the three major components of a paintball system—the gels that comprise the paintball shell, the liquid paint inside and the carbon dioxide propellant. Explains water solubility issues with paint, which is composed of polyethylene glycol, and shell. Emphasizes hydrogen bonding and the polarity of molecules. CO2 propellant explanation relies on pressure and vapor pressure equilibrium.

Retiring Old Tires
April 2007 (pp 11–13)

Author: Donald Jones and Helen Herlocker
Chemistry Connections:
Bonding, Organic/Biochemistry, Sustainability
Description:
Establishes tire fires as a serious environmental hazard. Describes the polymer chemistry used in manufacturing rubber. Makes the case for re-using old tires in three ways: burning them as a fuel (tire-derived fuel or TDF), shredding them and using them to help civil engineers in highways projects for drainage and landfills and grinding them into “crumb” size for use in making asphalt, playground surfaces and even for making new tires.

Sick Buildings—Air Pollution Comes Home
October 2006 (pp 12–14)

Author: Michelle Laliberte
Chemistry Connections:
Bonding, Nuclear, Organic/Biochemistry, Reactions, Sustainability
Description:
Homes can have multiple sources of pollution: biological (mold, dust mites), chemical (formaldehyde, radon, carbon monoxide). Chemistry of CO poisoning and formaldehyde resin formation shown.

ChemSumer: The Dog Ate My Homework and Other Gut-Wrenching Tales
April 2006 (pp 4–6)

Author: Michael Tinnesand
Chemistry Connections:
Bonding, Organic/Biochemistry
Description:
Describes the digestive processes in animals, specifically a dog in this article, with emphasis on the breaking and reforming of chemical bonds in biomolecules. The role of enzymes is used to explain why cellulose, which is made up of glucose units, cannot be digested but starch, also made up of glucose, cannot. Article notes that most animals that feed on a cellulose-rich diet cannot digest cellulose and, therefore, have a symbiotic relationship with micro-organisms that break down the cellulose.

ChemSumer: The Chemistry of Digital Photography and Printing
February 2006 (pp 4–7)

Author: Brian Rohrig
Chemistry Connections:
Atomic Theory, Bonding, Metals/Nonmetals, Periodicity
Description:
Begins with a very brief description of film photography and its chemistry. Then describes the role of “n” and “p” type semiconductors to form diodes, photosites or pixels, in the digital camera sensor. Also discusses differences between black and white and color sensors. Then it discusses inkjet vs. laser printing processes, focusing on charge differences to transfer the image or text.

Super Fibers
February 2006 (pp 11–13)

Author: Christen Brownlee
Chemistry Connections:
Atomic Theory, Bonding
Description:
Talks about infantry wear in the future, providing everything from personal air conditioning to health readings to two-way communication, to changing camouflage matching the terrain, to projectile protection, all designed within the fabric of the uniform, based on carbon nanotubes. Discusses the discovery and history of development and production of nanotubes, and projected roles for fibers made from them, including the infamous space elevator and worldwide electricity distributor.

Salting Roads: The Solution for Winter Driving
February 2006 (pp 14–16)

Author: Doris Kimbrough
Chemistry Connections:
Bonding, Solids/Liquids/Gases, Solutions, Thermochemistry
Description:
Discusses freezing point depression and ions, compares salt to other de-icers in terms of number of particles formed when they dissolve. Also shows phase diagram for salt-water mixture. Describes new technology that also addresses highway safety in wintry conditions.

ChemSumer: Liquid Crystal Displays
October 2005 (pp 6–9)

Author: Lois Fruen
Chemistry Connections:
Bonding, Organic/Biochemistry, Solids/Liquids/Gases
Description:
Talks about electronic games and other electronic devices that use liquid crystal displays (LCDs). Describes what liquid crystals are—long polar organic molecules, how they work—they align themselves in an electric field, but not too tightly, and polarizing films and polarized light—the process by which liquid crystals are able to transmit (or not) light. Discusses twisted nematic liquid crystals and color display screens, as well as the future of LCDs. Also includes a sidebar on plasma display screens, which use phosphorescent cells containing noble gases that emit ultraviolet light when excited by electricity, subsequently exciting the electrons in the phosphors to emit visible light.

The Amazing Drinking Bird!
October 2005 (pp 10–11)

Author: Brian Rohrig
Chemistry Connections:
Bonding, Equilibrium, Solids/Liquids/Gases, Thermochemistry
Description:
Describes what a drinking bird is and how it works. Explains the science behind the bird’s actions: evaporation of water cooling the top glass bulb, which lowers vapor pressure; greater vapor pressure at the bottom forces liquid up the tube until bird gets top-heavy and tips; liquid empties from tube, allowing pressure in two bulbs to equalize; process begins anew. Sidebar provides 5 additional experiments (extensions) to try with drinking birds.

Kitty Litter Chem
October 2005 (pp 12–14)

Author: Amanda Yarnell
Chemistry Connections:
Acids/Bases, Bonding, Solids/Liquids/Gases, Solutions
Description:
Discusses the relatively short history of cat litter (<60 years) and the four main types of cat litter—Fuller’s earth, bentonite (Montmorillonite), silica gels and plant-derived materials like Swheat Scoop. Talks about the chemistry of each type, including odor control (by protonation of NH3 to NH4+, absorbents, fragrances and antibacterial agents) and clumping of clays (absorption of water between layers of clay, causing swelling of the clay). Molecular models of Montmorillonite before and after the addition of water are shown.

ChemHistory: There’s Chemistry in Golf Balls!
October 2005 (pp 15–17)

Author: Brian Rohrig
Chemistry Connections:
Bonding, History/Biography, Organic/Biochemistry
Description:
Traces the history of the golf ball, from wood to featherie to guttie to mass-produced solid-rubber-core-with-rubber-thread-wrap to the pneumatic core to the myriad compositions of today’s golf balls. The invention of the superball is credited with major advances in golf ball technology. Describes the need for an inner core that is elastic and bounces back quickly after it is hit, and an outer layer that can deform, absorbing more of the energy of the swing. Discusses vulcanization of rubber polymer to improve coefficient of restitution (bounce).

The Great Hartford Circus Fire
February 2005 (pp 4–7)

Author: Brendan Rimetz
Chemistry Connections:
Bonding, History/Biography, Organic/Biochemistry, Reactions, Solutions
Description:
Tells the history of a fire that destroyed the Ringling Brothers and Barnum & Bailey Circus “big top” tent in July, 1944 and killed or injured almost 900 people. Focuses on waterproofing agent, composed of paraffin wax and gasoline. Discusses polarity of water, and non-polarity of gasoline and paraffin, and why the latter two chemicals were used to waterproof the tent canvas, and describes the synergistic (in this case, synergistically BAD) effects of using the two organic substances together, and why firefighters using water to put out the fire were unsuccessful. Discusses second waterproofing substance, with little known about its composition. Sidebar tells a survivor’s story. Second sidebar discusses colloidal dispersions to dissolve polar and non-polar substances together.

Peter Siegel: Studying the Energy of the Universe
September 2002 (pp 6–7)

Author: Frank Cardulla
Chemistry Connections:
Bonding, History/Biography
Description:
Describes the Terahertz (1012 Hertz, far infrared) region of the electromagnetic spectrum and explains why it is a useful part to observe—~98% of all radiation from space is in that region, many molecules radiate in that region, and we can’t detect it on Earth because it is overshadowed by more energetic frequencies; e.g., near infrared and visible light. Aura’s Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) will investigate these frequencies. Molecules in the upper atmosphere emitting in the THz region include water, HCl and OH. Also discusses Siegel’s background and his hobbies.