- Edouard van Beneden, born 1846, discovered number of chromosomes was constant for a species in all cells except for egg and sperm.
- Joseph von Fraunhofer, born 1787, discovered dark lines in solar spectum (Fraunhofer lines).
- Aleksei E. Favorski, born 1869, researcher in anionic rearrangements of acetylenes and cx-Haloketones.
- Antoine-CÉsar Becquerel, born 1788, first to use electrolysis to recover metals from ores (1836).
- John F. W. Hershel, born 1792, inventor of photography on sensitized paper; introduced terms "positive" and "negative" for photography.
- John H. Gladstone, born 1827, researcher on refractive index of gases and its relationship with density.
- Ludwig Mond, born 1839, discovered Mond producer (gas, nickel carbonyl ); cofounded company that became Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) .
- Arthur Hantzch, born 1857, researcher in organic acids, electrical conductivity of organic compounds, and stereochemistry of nitrogen compounds.
- James M. Crafts, born 1839, researcher on production of artificial minerals, pyroelectric phenomena of crystals, ketones & aldehydes; synthesized benzene homologues (Friedel-Crafts reaction).
- Otto Hahn, born 1879, codiscovered protactinium (Pa, 91); researched nuclear fission (1938), Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1944).
- Edward C. Kendall, born 1886, isolated thyroxine (1915); Nobel Prize in Medicine (1950).
- Farrington Daniels, born 1889, teacher of physical chemistry; pioneer in solar technology.
- Edward G. Acheson, born 1856, pioneer in development of electric furnace for production of silicon carbide (SiC); prepared graphite lubricants Oildag, Aquadag, and Gredag.
- Stanley G. Thompson, born 1912; in 1950, codiscovered berkelium (Bk, 97) and californium (Cf, 98); in 1952, codiscovered einsteinium (Es, 99); in 1955, codiscovered fermium (Fm, 100) and medelevium (MD, 101).
- Walter Kohn, born 1923, Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1998).
- Jeremias B. Richter, born 1762, discovered law of equivalent proportions.
- William McMurtie, born 1851, American Chemical Society president; researcher on methods for converting sewage to fertilizer.
- Henri E. S. Deville, born 1818, first to prepare pure aluminum; discovered toluene (1841) and anhydrous nitrogen pentoxide (1849).
- Cato M. Guldberg and Peter Waage presented their paper "Studier over Affiniteten", which described the law of mass action, in 1864.