- Jean A. C. Chaptal, born 1756, introduced name "nitrogen"; studied viticulture and dyeing.
- Heinrich O. Wieland, born 1877, researched organic chemistry and biochemistry; Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1927).
- Henri Moissan isolated fluorine by electrolysis of a solution of KHF2 in anhydrous HF in 1886.
- Johan Gadolin, born 1760; in 1794, discovered yttrium (Y, 39).
- Robert S. Mulliken, born 1896, Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1966).
- James Y. Simpson, born 1811, an obstetrician whose use of chloroform as an anesthetic led to its acceptance and introduced the use of ether in Great Britain.
- Francis H. C. Crick, born 1916, determined structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA); Nobel Prize in Medicine (1962).
- Edwin M. McMillan and Philip Abelson announced the discovery of neptunium (Np, 93) in 1940.
- John D. Roberts, born 1918, researcher on molecular orbital calculations and the application or nuclear magnetic resonance to organic chemistry.
- Hermann von Fehling, born 1812, discovered Fehling's solution as an oxidizing agent and an analytical reagent for aldehydes and sugars; elucidated composition of paraldehyde and metaldehyde; prepared phenyl cyanide.
- Nikolaus A. Otto, born 1832, developed four-stroke internal-combustion engine (first practical alternative to steam engine as a power source).
- John C.W.F. Tiemann, born 1848, elucidated the structure of the interrelated terpenes, Reimer-Tiemann reaction (1876) and the Tiemann rearrangement of amide oxides (1891).