- Herbert B. Baker, born 1862, researcher on effect of water on chemical change; authority on desiccating and poison gases.
- Walther H. Nernst, born 1864, discovered third law of thermodynamics; Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1920).
- William H. Stein, born 1911, researched enzyme chemistry; Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1972).
- William Thomson (Lord Kelvin), born 1824, established theory and practice of thermodynamics; defined absolute temperature scale (Kelvin).
- Wilhelm Ostwald converted ammonia to nitric acid by using a platinum catalyst in 1907.
- Arthur C. Cope, born 1909, researcher in synthetic organic chemistry including medium-sized ring compounds.
- Abraham Gesner patented the process for obtaining kerosene by distillation in 1854.
- Alexis Carrel, born 1873, Nobel Prize in Medicine (1912).
- Maria Goeppert-Mayer, born 1906, developed shell model of nucleus; researched isotopes effects, Nobel Prize in Physics (1963).
- F. Sherwood Rowland, born 1927, researcher on air pollution particularly the ozone layer; Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1995).
- Peter Waage, born 1833, formulated Law of Mass Action.
- Paul Berg, born 1926, researcher in recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA); Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1980).
- Franz J. Muller von Reichenstein, born in 1740; in 1782, discovered tellurium (Te, 52).
- Gerald M. Edelman, born 1929, researcher in structure of antibodies; Nobel Prize in Medicine (1972).
- J. T. Baker incorporated originally as Vick Chemical in 1919.
- The first nuclear rocket engine was successfully tested in 1959.