- Mikhail V. Lomonosov, born 1711, suggested law of conservation of mass and theory of heat as a form of motion; opposed phlogistic chemistry; first to record freezing of mercury (Hg, 80).
- James B. Sumner, born 1887, researcher on enzymes and proteins; crystallized urease and showed it to be a protein (1926); Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1946).
- Yuan T. Lee, born 1936, used specially designed mass spectrometer that could separate and identify reaction products; Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1986).
- James B. Collip, born 1892, produced insulin in a form which permitted clinical use.
- Born in 1824, Hieronymus T. Richter, codiscoverer of indium (In, 49) with Ferdinand Reich in 1863.
- Dmitri I. Mendeleev stated that gallium (Ga, 31) is identical to eka-aluminum, 1875.
- The Manned Spacecraft Center, Houston, TX, announced that its scientists had perfected a process to extract water and oxygen from moon soil, 1970.
- Born in 1837, Johannes D. van der Waals proposed an equation of state for gases (van der Waals equation); researcher on intermolecular attraction (van der Waals forces), electrolytic dissociation and capillarity.
- Born in 1887, Henry G. J. Moseley discovered that X-ray frequency is related to atomic number of elements in 1913. Died in World War I.
- Campbell Soup Co. incorporated, 1922.
- The Origin of Species by Charles Darwin was published by Oxford University Press in 1859.
- Julius R. von Mayer, born 1814, discovered law of conservation of energy.