- Herbert H. Dow, born 1866, founder of Dow Chemical Company.
- Giulio Natta, born 1903, discovered and elucidated stereospecific polymerization and stereoregular polymers; developed commercially important polymerization processes; Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1963).
- William J. Sparks, born 1905, coinventor of synthetic butyl rubber.
- Ahmed H. Zewail, born 1946, Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1999).
- Alice Hamilton, born 1869, founder of occupational medicine; first woman professor at Harvard Medical School; first woman to receive Lasker Award in public health.
- Edmond FrÉmy, born 1814, prepared anhydrous hydrogen fluoride; researched plumbates, stannates, ferrates, coloring of flowers and saponification of fats.
- Philip Hench, born 1896, Nobel Prize in Medicine (1950).
- Linus C. Pauling, born 1901, researcher on structure of molecules, valency, and resonance; Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1954); Noble Peace Prize (1962).
- John McLean, born 1771, first professor of chemistry at Princeton University; established the first U. S. Laboratory of chemistry at Princeton University.
- Edward Franklin, born 1862, researcher in chemistry of nitrogen system of compounds.
- Antoine-Henri Becquerel discovered radioactivity of uranite in pitchblende in 1896.
- Archer J. P. Martin, born 1910, Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1952).
- Phillippe A. Barbier, born 1848, synthesized first organomagnesium compound.
- H. Jermain Creighton, born 1886, researcher in electro-organic chemistry; developed industrial process for electroreduction of glucose to sorbitol and mannitol.
- Andreas S. Marggraf, born 1709, isolated zinc from calamine; distinguished between potash and soda by flame test; found alumina in clay; discovered beet sugar in beetroot.
- Gregory P. Baxter, born 1876, codetermined atomic weight of lead (1935), determination led to estimations of age of minerals.
- Elmer V. McCollum, born 1879, researcher in nutrition and growth.
- Arthur Kornberg, born 1918, researcher on the synthetic pathways by which nucleic acids are produced; Nobel Prize in Medicine (1959).
- Richard C. Tolman, born 1881, demonstrated electron to be charge-carrying particle in flow of electricity in metals.