Programs in Italy
Science and Technology (S&T) Information
The Directorate General for Cultural Promotion and Cooperation coordinates and supports international cooperation initiatives in the scientific and technological sector. Some other S&T related agencies are:
- The Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS) is the leading technical and scientific public body of the Italian National Health Service. Its activities include research, control, training and consultation in the interest of public health protection.
- Activities of the Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA) are targeted to research, innovation technology and advanced services in the fields of energy - especially nuclear.
- The National Research Council (CNR) is a public organization and its activities are divided into macro areas of interdisciplinary scientific and technological research, concerning several sectors: biotechnology, medicine, materials, environment and land, information and communications, advanced systems of production, judicial and socio-economic sciences, classical studies and arts. CNR is distributed all over Italy through a network of institutes aiming at promoting a wide diffusion of its competences throughout the national territory and at facilitating contacts and cooperation with local firms and organizations.
- Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT) promotes Italy's technological development and advanced education, consistent with national policies for scientific and technological development.
List of other resources can be found within the Scientific Cooperation section of the website of the Italian Embassy in Washington.
Education System in Italy
The Eurydice Network, within the Education, Audiovisual & Cultural Executive Agency of the European Commission provides information on and analyses of European education systems and policies. According to their overview, the education system in Italy is organized according to the subsidiary principle and autonomy of schools. The State has exclusive competence on general issues on education, on minimum standards to be guaranteed throughout the country and on the fundamental principles that Regions should comply with within their competences. Regions share their competences with the State on education issues while they have exclusive competence on vocational education and training. Schools are autonomous as for didactic, organization and research and development activities.
For more details, refer to the interactive overview of the Italian education system which can be found on the Eurydice Network website.
According to the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs website, there are two main categories of visa, depending on the duration of the visa:
- Short-stay visas
For visits of up to a total of 90 days over a period of 180 days. The number of days is calculated from the date of first entry to the territory of the countries of the Schengen area. The visas in question are called Uniform Schengen Visas (USVs, Italian initials VSU) and limited territorial validity Visas (LTV, Italian initials VTL). Uniform visas are valid for the entire territory of the Schengen countries. Limited Territoriality Visas are only issued in exceptional circumstances. They are valid for the territory of one or more Schengen member states but not for all of them.
- Long-stay visas
For more than 90 days. These are national visas (Italian initials VN). National visas entitle you to stay for a long period only in the country that has issued the visa. They also entitle you to travel within the Schengen Area for up to 90 days, even if you are still waiting for your residence permit to be issued.
Uniform Schengen visas are type C visas and national visas are type D visas.
Short-stay visas can be issued for: business, medical treatment, sporting events, by invitation, self-employment, dependent employment, missions, religious grounds, study, transport and tourism.
Long-stay visas can only be issued for: adoption, medical treatment, diplomatic work, accompanying family members, self-employment, dependent employment, religious grounds, re-entry, elective residence, family reunification, study, working holidays.
Type A visas (which are also short-stay) are visas for airport transit. Only the citizens of certain countries are required to apply for these.
To get more details, consult the nearest Italian Consulate or go to the visa database guidance section of the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs website.