Skip Navigation

ACS is committed to helping combat the global COVID-19 pandemic with initiatives and free resources. Learn More

College - General Chemistry Project

Table of Contents (by Section)

Chapter 1. Water: A Natural Wonder

Section 1.1. Phases of Matter

Section 1.2. Atomic Models

Section 1.3. Molecular Models

Section 1.4. Valence Electrons in Molecular Models: Lewis Structures

Section 1.5. Arranging Electron Pairs in Three Dimensions

Section 1.6. Polarity of the Water Molecule

Section 1.7. Why Is Water Liquid at Room Temperature?

Section 1.8. Further Structural Effects of Hydrogen Bonding in Water

Section 1.9. Hydrogen Bonds in Biomolecules

Section 1.10. Phase Changes: Liquid to Gas

Section 1.11. Counting Molecules: The Mole

Section 1.12. Specific Heat of Water: Keeping the Earth's Temperature Stable

Section 1.13. Outcomes Review

Section 1.14. EXTENSION -- Liquid Viscosity

Chapter 2. Aqueous Solutions and Solubility

Section 2.1. Substances in Solution

Section 2.2. Solutions of Polar Molecules in Water

Section 2.3. Characteristics of Solutions of Ionic Compounds in Water

Section 2.4. Formation of Ionic Compounds

Section 2.5. Aqueous Solutions of Ionic Compounds

Section 2.6. Precipitation Reactions of Ions in Solution

Section 2.7. Solubility Rules for Ionic Compounds

Section 2.8. Concentrations and Moles

Section 2.9. Mass-Mole-Volume Calculations

Section 2.10. Reaction Stoichiometry in Solutions

Section 2.11. Solutions of Gases in Water

Section 2.12. The Acid-Base Reaction of Water with Itself

Section 2.13. Acids and Bases in Aqueous Solutions

Section 2.14. Stoichiometry of Acid-Base Reactions

Section 2.15. Chemical Reactions of Dissolved Carbon Dioxide

Section 2.16. Outcomes Review

Section 2.17. EXTENSION -- La Chatelier's Principle

Chapter 3. Origin of Atoms

Section 3.1. The Nuclear Atom

Section 3.2. Spectroscopy and Stellar Composition

Section 3.3. Evolution of the Universe: Stars

Section 3.4. Nuclear Reactions

Section 3.5. Nuclear Reaction Energies

Section 3.6. Cosmic Elemental Abundance and Nuclear Stability

Section 3.7. Formation of Planets: The Earth

Section 3.8. Outcomes Review

Section 3.9. EXTENSION: Isotopes: Age of the Universe and a Taste of Honey

Chapter 4. Structure of Atoms

Section 4.1. Periodicity and the Periodic Table

Section 4.2. Light as a Wave

Section 4.3. Photoelectric Effect: Light as a Particle

Section 4.4. Why Atomic Spectra Look the Way They Do: Quantum Model of Atoms

Section 4.5. If a Wave Can Be a Particle, Can a Particle Be a Wave?

Section 4.6. The Wave Model of Electrons in Atoms

Section 4.7. Energies of Electrons in Atoms: Why Atoms Don't Collapse

Section 4.8. Multi-electron Atoms: Electron Spin

Section 4.9. Electron Shells and Periodicity

Section 4.10. Wave Equations and Atomic Orbitals

Section 4.11. Outcomes Review

Section 4.12. EXTENSION -- Energies of a Spherical Electron Wave

Chapter 5. Structure of molecules

Section 5.1. Isomers

Section 5.2. Lewis Structures and Molecular Models of Isomers

Section 5.3. Sigma molecular orbitals

Section 5.4. Sigma Molecular Orbitals and Molecular Geometry

Section 5.5. Multiple Bonds

Section 5.6. Pi Molecular Orbitals

Section 5.7. Delocalized pi orbitals

Section 5.8. Representations of Molecular Geometry

Section 5.9. Stereoisomerism

Section 5.10. Functional Groups -- Making Life Interesting

Section 5.11. Molecular Recognition

Section 5.12. Outcomes Review

Section 5.13. EXTENSION -- Antibonding Orbitals: The Oxygen Story

Chapter 6. Chemical Reactions

Section 6.1. Classifying Chemical Reactions

Section 6.2. Ionic Precipitation Reactions

Section 6.3. Lewis Acids and Bases: Definition

Section 6.4. Lewis Acids and Bases: Bronsted-Lowry Acid-Base Reactions

Section 6.5. Predicting Strengths of Lewis/Bronsted-Lowry Bases and Acids

Section 6.6. Lewis Acids and Bases: Metal Ion Complexes

Section 6.7. Lewis Acids and Bases: Electrophiles and Nucleophiles

Section 6.8. Formal Charge

Section 6.9. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions: Electron Transfer

Section 6.10. Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Reaction Equations

Section 6.11. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions of Carbon-containing Molecules

Section 6.12. Outcomes Review

Section 6.13. EXTENSION -- Titration

Chapter 7. Chemical Energetics: Enthalpy

Section 7.1. Energy and Change

Section 7.2. Thermal Energy (Heat) and Mechanical Energy (Work)

Section 7.3. Thermal Energy (Heat) Transfer

Section 7.4. State Functions and Path Functions

Section 7.5. System and Surroundings

Section 7.6. Calorimetry and Introduction to Enthalpy

Section 7.7. Bond Enthalpies

Section 7.8. Standard Enthalpies of Formation

Section 7.9. Harnessing Energy in Living Systems

Section 7.10. Enthalpy Revisited

Section 7.11. What Enthalpy Doesn't Tell Us

Section 7.12. Outcomes Review

Section 7.13 EXTENSION -- Gases: Pressure-Volume Work

Chapter 8. Entropy and Molecular Organization

Section 8.1. Mixing and Osmosis

Section 8.2. Probability and Change

Section 8.3. Counting Molecular Arrangements in Mixtures

Section 8.4. Implications for Mixing and Osmosis in Macroscopic Systems

Section 8.5. Energy Arrangements Among Molecules

Section 8.6. Entropy

Section 8.7. Phase Changes and Net Entropy

Section 8.8. Gibbs Free Energy

Section 8.9. Thermodynamics of Rubber

Section 8.10. Colligative Properties of Solutions

Section 8.11. Osmotic Pressure Calculations

Section 8.12. Thermodynamic Calculations for Chemical Reactions

Section 8.13. Why Oil and Water Don't Mix

Section 8.14. Ambiphilic Molecules: Micelles and Bilayer Membranes

Section 8.15. The Cost of Molecular Organization

Section 8.16. Outcomes Review

Section 8.17. Osmosis and Cell Membranes

Chapter 9. Chemical Equilibrium

Section 9.1. The Nature of Equilibrium

Section 9.2. Mathematical Expression for the Equilibrium Condition

Section 9.3. Acid-Base Reactions and Equilibria

ReSection 9.4. Solutions of Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs: Buffer Solutions

Section 9.5. Acid-Base Properties of Proteins

Section 9.6. Solubility Equilibria for Ionic Salts

Section 9.7. Thermodynamics and the Equilibrium Constant

Section 9.8. Temperature Dependence of the Equilibrium Constant

Section 9.9. Thermodynamics in Living Systems

Section 9.10. Outcomes Review

Section 9.11. EXTENSION -- Competing Equilibri

Chapter 10. Reduction and Oxidation: Electrochemistry

Section 10.1. Electrolysis

Section 10.2. Electric Current from Chemical Reactions

Section 10.3. Work From Electrochemical Cells

Section 10.4. Concentration Dependence of Cell Potentials

Section 10.5. Free Energy and Electrochemical Cells: The Nernst Equation

Section 10.6. Combining Cell Potentials for Reactions

Section 10.7. Half-Cell Potentials: Reduction Potentials

Section 10.8. Reduction Potentials and the Nernst Equation

Section 10.9. Carbon-Containing Reducing Agents: Glucose

Section 10.10. Coupled Redox Reactions

Section 10.11. Outcomes Review

Section 10.12. EXTENSION -- Cell Potentials and Non-Redox Equilibria

Chapter 11. Reaction Pathways

Section 11.1. Pathways of Change

Section 11.2. Measuring and Expressing Rates of Chemical Change

Section 11.3. Reaction Rate Laws

Section 11.4. Reaction Pathways or Mechanisms

Section 11.5. More Ways to Analyze Rate Data

Section 11.6. Temperature and Reaction Rates

Section 11.7. Light: Another Way to Activate a Reaction

Section 11.8 Outcomes Review

Section 11.9 EXTENSION – Enzymatic Catalysis