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This volume came from a symposium held during the 252nd American Chemical Society National Meeting in August 2016, shortly after the completion 7th row of the periodic table. Its chapters explore the elements, their fascinating history, and their place in society.
These guidelines are based on the premise that all presenters care very much about the safety of their audiences and participants during demonstration shows and hands-on activities.
The reagent guides purpose is to encourage chemists to choose a ‘greener’ choice of reaction conditions. The guides aim to achieve this by providing transparency through the use of Venn diagrams in addition to improving understanding by discussion and up to date references.
In 1946, Willard Libby proposed an innovative method for dating organic materials by measuring their content of carbon-14, a newly discovered radioactive isotope of carbon. Known as radiocarbon dating, this method provides objective age estimates for carbon-based objects that originated from living organisms.
Conceived in wartime, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) managed the transition to peacetime, in part, through the production and distribution of radioisotopes, perhaps the most important scientific byproduct of the Manhattan Project.
Neil Bartlett, while working alone in his laboratory, demonstrated that the "inertness" of the Group VIII elements was not a fundamental law of nature as previously believed. Bartlett's discovery meant that all existing textbooks had to be rewritten.
Since Roger Bacon discovered “graphite whiskers” in 1958 at Union Carbide’s Parma Technical Center (now GrafTech International), carbon fibers have been used in high performance applications from airplanes to automobiles and from satellites to sporting goods.
Working in Bailey Hall on December 7, 1905, Hamilton P. Cady and David F. McFarland discovered significant amounts of helium in a natural gas sample from Dexter, Kansas.
In the mid-1930s, chemists and physicists, became intrigued with the possibility of synthesizing new elements not found in nature. Their dream was finally realized in 1937 when Italians Carlo Perrier and Emilio Segrè synthesized technetium.
Charles James, a chemistry professor at the University of New Hampshire from 1906 to 1928, was an internationally-recognized expert in rare earth chemistry. In a laboratory in Conant Hall, James devised novel fractional crystallization techniques for separating rare earth elements, which were widely adopted by other chemists.
Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier forever changed the practice and concepts of chemistry by forging a new series of laboratory analyses that would bring order to the chaotic centuries of Greek philosophy and medieval alchemy. Lavoisier’s work in framing the principles of modern chemistry led future generations to regard him as a founder of the science.
Before 1886, aluminum was a semiprecious metal comparable in price to silver. The third most abundant element in the earth’s crust—and its most plentiful metal—, aluminum is made from bauxite, a reddish-brown rock discovered in Les Baux, France, in 1821.
On January 4, 1891, Herbert H. Dow succeeded in producing bromine electrolytically from central Michigan’s rich brine resources. In the years that followed, this and other processes developed by Dow and the company he founded led to an increasing stream of chemicals from brines. The commercial success of these endeavors helped to promote the growth of the American chemical industry.
In his laboratory at Western Reserve University (Now Case Western Reserve University), Edward W. Morley carried out his research on the atomic weight of oxygen that provided a new standard to the science of chemistry. The accuracy of his analyses has never been superseded by chemical means. His great work, published in 1895, also gave important insight into the atomic theory of matter.
The American Chemical Society and the Royal Society of Chemistry dedicated the Discovery of Oxygen by Joseph Priestley an International Historic Chemical Landmark on August 7, 2000, in Wiltshire, UK.