- Walter N. Haworth, born 1883; in 1933, synthesized ascorbic acid (vitamin C); researched possibility of sugars and dextran as blood plasma substitute; Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1937).
- FrÉdÉric J. Joliot, born 1900, produced artificial radioisotopes (1933); Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1935); co proved experimentally that neutron emission occurs in nuclear fission.
- Mario J. Molina, born 1943, researcher on air pollution (particularly ozone layer); Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1995).
- Charles W. Eliot, born 1834, teacher of chemistry; president of Harvard University (1869–1909).
- Bausch & Lomb was incorporated as Bausch & Lomb Optical Co. in 1908.
- Michael Tswett gave first description of his chromatographic method to Warsaw Society of Natural Sciences in 1903.
- Walter Gilbert, born 1932, researcher on determination of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) base sequence; Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1980).
- Pierre J. Pelletier, born 1788, discovered quinine, strychnine, and other alkaloids; co obtained toluene by distilling pipe resin (1836).
- Robert A. Millikan, born 1868, measured charge/mass ratio of electron; Nobel Prize in Physics (1923).
- Charles L. Parsons, born 1867, researcher on beryllium; American Chemical Society secretary (1907–1945).
- Hermann Staudinger, born 1881, researcher on chemistry of macromolecular substances; Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1953).
- William Crookes identified a new gas which was isolated from air (by W. Ramsay) as helium (He,2) in 1895.
- Georgius Agricola, born 1494, the "Father of Mineralogy"; described mining and metallurgical processes.
- William Brownrigg, born 1711, first to describe platinum and use the pneumatic trough for collection of gases.
- William Frear, born 1860, researcher on beef sugar, cereals, culture of tobacco, soils, and fertilizers.
- Petrus (Peter) J. W. Debye, born 1884, Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1936).
- Adolf F. J. Butenandt, born 1903, researcher on sex hormones; offered Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1939), because Nazi decree against foreign awards received in 1943.
- Simon Flexner, born 1863, isolated common strain (Shigella dysenteriae) of dysentery bacillus (1899); developed curative serum for cerebrospinal meningitis (1907).