- Carl L. Alsberg, born 1877, researcher on the chemistry of food.
- Francis H. C. Crick and James D. Watson mailed a 900-word article on the structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) to Nature in 1953.
- Pierre-Fidèle Bretonneau, born 1778, first to distinguish typhoid from typhus; first to clinically describe diphther; performed first successful tracheotomy
- Nikolai N. Semenov, born 1896, researcher in chemical kinetics; Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1956).
- The Electrochemical Society was organized on this date in 1902 as the American Electrochemical Society.
- Otto Folin, born 1867, pioneer in clinical chemistry; introduced Folin-Wu reagent for glucose analysis.
- Ira Remsen was awarded first Priestley Medal in 1923.
- Synthesis of vitamin B6 was announced by Merck, Sharp & Dohme in 1939.
- Joseph Lister, born 1827, introduced antiseptics such as carbolic acid (phenol).
- Marshall Gates and G. Tschudi announced synthesis of morphine in 1956.
- James Walker, born 1863, researcher on hydrolysis, ionization constants, and amphoteric electrolytes with organic compounds.
- First official organizational meeting of American Chemical Society was held at New York University in 1876.
- James D. Watson, born 1928, researcher on double-helix structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule; Nobel Prize in Medicine (1962).
- Edmond H. Fischer, born 1920, researcher on protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism; Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (1992).
- New law instituted metric decimal system in France and established its nomenclature in 1795.
- Louis P. Hammett, born 1894, developed Hammett equation for linear free-energy relationship and correlation of changes in chemical properties with chemical structures.
- Walter H. Stockmayer, born 1914, a researcher in polymer chemistry.