- Edward Jenner inoculated a boy with cowpox virus in 1796.
- Pierre Curie, born 1859, discovered phenomenon of piezoelectricity; in 1898, codiscovered polonium (Po, 84) and radium (Ra, 88); Nobel Prize in Physics (1903)
- Nicolas-Louis Vauquelin, born 1763; in 1797, discovered chromium (Cr, 24); in 1798, discovered beryllium (Be, 4).
- Joseph N. Lockyer, born 1836, codiscovered helium (He, 2) in the sun (1868).
- Odd Hassel, born 1897, researched molecular structure of cyclohexane and derivatives, charge-transfer compounds, and rules for geometry of charge-transfer compounds; Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1969).
- Thomas Midgley, Jr., born 1889, introduced tetraethyllead as an antiknock agent; researched organic chlorofluorides as refrigerants.
- Dow Chemical Co. incorporated in 1897.
- Vincent du Vigneaud, born 1901, studied sulfur containing proteins including insulin; researched transmethylation and metabolism of single carbon compounds; Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1955).
- John J. Abel, born 1857, "Father of American pharmacology"; isolated epinephrine (adrenaline).
- Max F. Perutz, born 1914, Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1962).
- Ralph Landau, born 1916, cofounded Scientific Design (1946); led in development of terephthalic acid process in polyester manufacture and propylene oxide process.
- Eduard Buchner, born 1860, discovered alcoholic fermentation without yeast cells (1896) and zymase (1897); invented Buchner funnel; Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1907).
- Hans Meerwein, born 1879, researched oxonium ions and Wagner-Meerwein rearrangements.
- Francis O. Rice, born 1890, researched free radicals.
- Occidental Petroleum incorporated in 1920.