- Edgar Fahs Smith, born 1854, researcher in electrochemistry and history of chemistry; three times President of American Chemical Society.
- John Mayow, born in 1640, discovered air contained two gases, one supported life and combustion, spiritus nitro-aerous (oxygen).
- Gabriel D. Fahrenheit, born 1686; in 1720, improved thermometers by using mercury (Hg, 80); invented Fahrenheit temperature scale.
- Aaron Dexter appointed first professor of chemistry and material medica at newly organized Harvard Medical School in 1783.
- Pieter Zeeman, born 1865, studied influence of magnetism on the nature of radiation; discovered splitting of spectral lines (Zeeman Effect), Nobel Prize in Physics (1902).
- Paul J. Scheuer, born 1915, considered the father of marine natural products chemistry.
- Helen Marie Dyer, born 1895, researched chemotherapy; American Chemical Society's Garvan Medal (1962).
- Lars F. Nilson, born 1840; in 1879, discovered scandium (Sc, 21).
- Theodor Curtius, born 1857, researched chemistry of hydrazines and azaides; Curtius rearrangement named in his honor.
- Kasimir Fajans, born 1887, established radioactive displacement law; initiated concept of heat of hydration of gaseous ions.
- John C. Bailar, Jr., born 1904, discovered optical inversion; explained stereospecificity in complex inorganic reactions.
- Mary Fieser, born 1909, researched quinones, natural products, and steroids; coauthored many textbooks on organic chemistry.