- Karl von Linde, born 1842, constructed equipment by which air could be liquefied on a commercial scale (1895).
- Fritz A. Lipmann, born 1899, discovered coenzyme A and central role of ATP in metabolism; Nobel Prize in Medicine (1953).
- Charles A. Goessmann, born 1827, discovered arachnic acid in peanuts; studied chemistry of sorghum and sugar beets.
- James Clerk Maxwell, born 1831, researched electromagnetic theory (Maxwell equations), thermodynamics (Maxwell relations), and kinetic theory of gases (Maxwell velocity distribution); devised the “Maxwell’s demon”.
- Lloyd Conover, born 1923, invented tetracycline, US patent 2,699,054.
- Samuel C. Lind, born 1879, researched radioactivity and photochemistry; invented electroscope for radium measurements (Lind electroscope); discovered ionization theory of chemical effects of radium rays.
- Carl Auer von Welsbach announced separation of didymium into neodymium (Nd, 60) and praseodymium (Pr, 59) in 1885.
- Antoine F. de Fourcroy, born 1755, pioneer in animal and plant chemistry; collaborated with A. L. Lavoisier and C. L. Berthollet in some of their discoveries and nomenclature.
- Henry E. Roscoe announced the isolation of metallic vanadium in 1869.
- Georg Wittig, born 1897, researcher in organophosphorus chemistry (Wittig reaction); Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1979).
- Otto Eisenschiml, born 1880, devised means to determine whether vegetable oils contaminated with fish oils; American Civil War historian.
- William Crookes, born 1832, separated uranium into two parts (naming new one uranium-X); in 1861, discovered thallium (Tl, 81).
- William Perkin, Jr., born 1860, synthesized terpenes and alkaloids.
- Byron Riegel, born 1906, researched oral contraceptives.