Week 31: July 30 – Aug. 5 (Archive)
- The ship Charles of Antwerp (Belgium) becomes first oil tanker carrying oil from the US to Europe in 1869.
- Friedrich Wöhler, born 1800, conducted research on isomerism; synthesized urea from ammonium cyanate; challenged vitalistic theory that organic compounds can be produced only by living organisms; in 1828, isolated beryllium (Be, 4) and aluminium (Al, 13); discovered calcium carbide and preparation of acetylene from it.
- Paul D. Boyer, born 1918, Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1997).
- First patent on Potash and Pearl Ash to Samuel Hopkins.
- Joseph H. Gilbert, born 1817, conducted research on nitrogen fertilizers.
- George de Hevesy, born 1885, conducted research on radioisotopes; in 1923, discovered hafnium (Hf, 72); Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1943).
- Charles R. Harington, born 1897, conducted research in biochemistry; synthesized thyroxine.
- Centennial of Chemistry Celebration was held in Northumberland, PA, in 1874.
- U.S. Atomic Energy Commission was established in 1946.
- George H. Buchi, born 1921, researched organic photochemistry; determined structure of 55 and syntheses of 75 complex natural products.
- Friedrich Strohmeyer, born 1776; in 1817, discovered cadmium (Cd, 48).
- Leopold Gmelin, born 1788, discovered potassium ferricyanide (Gmelin's salt, 1822) among other organic substances; author of the "Handbuch der Anorganischen Chemie".
- Benjamin Rush, professor of chemistry, signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776.
- Albert Einstein sent a letter to President F. D. Roosevelt concerning military potential of atomic energy in 1939.
- Isaac Adams received patent on nickel plating in 1869.
- U.S. nuclear-powered submarines Nautilus and Skate crossed under the polar ice cap in 1958.
- Jeanette Grasselli Brown, born 1928, researcher on vibrational spectroscopy; Garvan Medal (1985).
- U.S. Department of Energy created in 1977.
- Exxon incorporated as Standard Oil Company of New Jersey in 1882.