- Richard M. Willstätter, born 1872, studied aliphatic amines and alkaloids; Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1915).
- Salvador Luria, born 1912, researched microbial genetics; Nobel Prize in Medicine (1969).
- Frederick Sanger, born 1918, conducted research on structure of proteins, insulin and base sequences of nucleic acids; Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1958); Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1980).
- Olin incorporated as Mathieson Alkali Works in 1892.
- Hans C. Oersted, born 1877, pioneered studies in electromagnetism; first to isolate aluminum (Al, 13).
- Richard R. Ernst, born 1933, Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1991).
- William A. Tilden, born 1842, researched organic bases, alkaloids, and specific heats of elements.
- Charles A. Kraus, born 1875, conducted research on electrolytes.
- Gerty T. Cori, born 1896, discovered how glycogen is catalytically converted; Nobel Prize in Medicine (1947).
- Wendell M. Stanley, born 1904, researched chemical nature of viruses; crystallized tobacco mosaic virus; Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1946).
- Gabriel Lippmann, born 1845, developed capillary electrometer, general theory of his process for the photographic reproduction of color; Nobel Prize in Physics (1908).
- Walter K. F. Noddack, born 1893; in 1925, codiscovered rhenium (Re, 75).
- Aldrich Chemical Company was established in 1951.
- Hewlett Packard was incorporated in 1947.
- Johan G. Gahn, born 1745; in 1774, isolated manganese (Mn, 25); co-discovered phosphoric acid in bones in 1770.
- Lothar Meyer, born 1830, developed periodic table independently of, but at same time as, Dimitri Mendeleev (1869); showed dependence of atomic volume on atomic weight (1870).