- Henry Le Chatelier, born 1850, discovered law of reaction governing effect of pressure and temperature on equilibrium (Le Chatelier's law); researcher on specific heat of gases at high temperature, mass action in explosives, and chemistry of silicates.
- Otto H. Warburg, born 1883, researcher on respiration and cancer; Nobel Prize in Medicine (1931).
- Rodney R. Porter, born 1917, Nobel Prize in Medicine (1972).
- Jens C. Skou, born 1918, discovered enzyme promotes directed (vectored) transport of substances through cell membrane, Na+, K+-ATPase; Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1997).
- Pierre J. Macquer, born 1718, studied platinum (Pt, 78); discovered arsenates of potassium and sodium.
- Emil Fischer, born 1852, synthesized sugars, caffeine, uric acid, and other organic chemicals; Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1902).
- Max von Laue, born 1879, researcher in X-rays and crystal structure; suggested crystals diffract X-rays (1912); Nobel Prize in Physics (1914).
- Henry Cavendish, born 1731, synthesized water; in 1766, discovered hydrogen (H, 1); independent discoverer of nitrogen (N, 7).
- Ernest O. Lawrence invented cyclotron in 1930.
- Friedrich Bergius, born 1884, researched chemical reactions at high pressure, conversion of coal into oil, hydrolysis of wood to sugar and cattle feed; Nobel Prize in Chemistry(1931).
- J. P. Cooke, born 1827, first to use laboratory instruction in undergraduate course (Harvard University).
- Arthur Harden, born 1865, researcher on enzymes and fermentation; demonstrated structure of zymase; Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1929).
- Vladimir A. Kistiakowsky, born 1865, researcher in electrochemistry and thermodynamics.
- General Motors incorporated in 1916.
- Friedrich W. G. Kohlrausch, born 1840, researcher on electrical conductivity, dilution of strong electrolytes, and conductivity (Kohlrausch's equation).
- Jacobus H. van't Hoff presented a law showing osmotic pressure of dilute solution obeys Boyle's, Charles's, and Avogadro's laws and pV=nRT before the Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1886.