- Evangelista Torricelli, born 1608, first to create sustained vacuum; discovered principle of a barometer.
- William T. G. Morton demonstrated use of ether as anesthetic at Massachusetts General Hospital in 1846.
- Henry C. Sherman, born 1875, researcher on vitamins.
- Lev A. Chugaev, born 1873, developed complexing agents for analysis; studied inorganic chemistry of metal complexes and xanthate pyrolysis.
- Unocal incorporated as Union Oil Co. of California in 1890.
- Christian F. Schönbein, born 1799, discovered ozone (1840) and collodion (1846); researcher on hydrogen peroxide and guncotton.
- Harvey W. Wiley, born 1844, the "Father of Pure Food Law."
- Hercules incorporated in 1912.
- Marguerite Perey, born 1909; in 1939, discovered francium (Fr, 87).
- James Chadwick, born 1891; in 1932, discovered the neutron; Nobel Prize in Physics (1935).
- Georg E. Stahl, born 1660, researcher on oxidation and reduction; prepared glacial acetic acid; responsible for theory of phlogiston with Johann J. Becher.
- Alfred B. Nobel, born 1833, invented dynamite and established the Nobel Prizes.