Maximize Resource Efficiency

Maximizing Resource Efficiency in Green Chemistry & Engineering

Be Efficient


Separation and purification operations should be designed to minimize energy consumption and materials use**


Energy Requirements should be recognized for their environmental and economic impacts and should be minimized. Synthetic methods should be conducted at ambient temperature and pressure*


Products, processes, and systems should be designed to maximize mass, energy, space, and time efficiency**


Design of products, processes, and systems must include integration and interconnectivity with available energy and materials flows**


Strive to prevent waste***


Mass Balances

Establish full mass balances for a process****

Heat & Mass Transfer

Anticipate heat and mass transfer limitations****


Report conversions, selectivities, and productivities****

Byproduct Formation

Identify and quantify by-products****


Quantify and minimize the use of utilities****


Output-Pulled vs. Input-Pulled

Products, processes and systems should be “output pulled” rather than “input pushed” through the use of energy and materials**

Atom Economy

Synthetic methods should be designed to maximize the incorporation of all materials used in the process into the final product*

Find Alternatives

The use of auxiliary substances (e.g., solvents, separation agents) should be made unnecessary whenever possible and innocuous when used*

Reduce Derivatives

Unnecessary derivatization (blocking group, protection-deprotection, and temporary modification of physical / chemical processes) should be avoided whenever possible*

Use Catalysis

Catalytic reagents (as selective as possible) are superior to stoichiometric reagents*

Be Sustainable


Minimize depletion of natural resources.***

Conserve & Improve

Conserve and improve natural ecosystems while protecting human health and well-being ***


* Anastas, P. T.; Warner, J. C. Green Chemistry: Theory and Practice; Oxford University Press: New York, 1998; p 30.

** Anastas, P. T.; Zimmerman, J. B. Design through the Twelve Principles of Green Engineering. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2003, 37(5), 94A-101A.

*** Abraham, M. A.; Nguyen, N. “Green Engineering: Defining the Principles” - Results from the San Destin Conference, Environmental Progress, 2003, 22(4), 233-236.

****Winterton, N. Twelve more green chemistry principles? Green Chem. 2001, 3, G73-G75.

ACS GCI's Green Chemistry and Engineering Conference

Registration is open for the 25th Annual Green Chemistry & Engineering Conference. Register now to attend the virtual conference June 14-18, 2021.