1,10-Phenanthroline forms a stable complex with Fe(II) ion called ferroin, which is used as an indicator in Fe(II) salt titrations. Ferroin is also used in the determination of other metals, such as nickel, ruthenium, and silver. Phenanthroline is synthesized by heating o-phenylenediamine or 8-aminoquinoline with glycerol, H2SO4, and nitrobenzene.
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