Styrene is a sweet-smelling, oily liquid that is almost insoluble in water but is miscible with most organic solvents. Its name comes from styrax (or storax) balsam, the resin of the Liquidambar genus of trees that grow in many places worldwide. M. Bonastre first isolated it in 1831 by distilling the balsam.
Styrene is among the most widely manufactured industrial chemicals: Production is approaching 30 million tonnes per year. Almost all of it is produced by dehydrogenating ethylbenzene; and almost all of it is used to make polystyrene or styrene copolymers, particularly styrene–butadiene rubber and latex. It polymerizes so readily that it forms a resin when it is exposed to the atmosphere.
Styrene has its downsides: It irritates the eyes and mucous membranes and causes more serious problems if it is inhaled or ingested. It has not been classified as a carcinogen, but its carcinogenicity is being evaluated by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the US Department of Health and Human Services. Styrene also contaminates water that flows through cured-in-place pipes.
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