The American Chemical Society (ACS) News Service Weekly press package (PressPac) offers information on reports selected from 36 major peer-reviewed journals and Chemical & Engineering News.
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Chemists in England and the Netherlands have discovered a substance that could keep those boxes of Valentine’s Day chocolates, and other goodies, looking fresher and tastier. Their finding, which prevents formation of unsightly white films on the outside of chocolate, is scheduled for the March 12 issue of the ACS’ Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, a bi-weekly publication.
Called “fat bloom,” white films are actually tiny particles of crystalline fat and most often appear on the surface of chocolates that contain nut-based fillings. The films often alarm consumers, who may mistakenly think good chocolates have gone bad. Although the blooms have been studied for decades, the phenomenon is poorly understood and researchers have had difficulty finding an effective method to reduce their formation.
In the new study, Kevin W. Smith and colleagues crafted a candy-size mechanical model of a chocolate bon-bon using a series of stacked, steel washers. They layered the bottom of each cylinder with different concentrations of a substance called “antibloom fat” and then filled the top of each cylinder with cocoa butter to represent a chocolate coating. The scientists showed that increasing the amount of “antibloom” used in the filling slowed the rate of crystal formation, thereby preventing fat bloom. — MTS
Journal: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Journal Article: “Effect of Antibloom Fat Migration from a Nut Oil Filling on the Polymorphic Transformation of Cocoa Butter”
Biochemists in Japan are reporting development of a long-sought direct test for identifying the presence E. coli bacteria that get into water and food as a result of fecal contamination. That contamination causes millions of cases of food poisoning and other gastrointestinal illness around the world each year. Their study is scheduled for the April 4 issue of ACS’ Biotechnology Progress, a bi-monthly journal.
In the report, Yasunori Tanji and colleagues point out that tests now in use do not directly identify E. coli. Instead, these tests detect “coliform” bacteria that health officials use as indicators for fecal contamination. Coliforms, however, can originate from natural sources, and are not always reliable indicators of fecal contamination. Direct tests for E. coli do exist, but are too time-consuming and complex for general use.
The new study describes successful use of genetically engineered viruses that infect E. coli to identify a wide range of E. coli strains found in sewage. Researchers first engineered the viruses to be harmless to E. coli. Then they gave the viruses genes to produce green fluorescent proteins. The resulting viruses reveal the presence of E. coli by lighting up and glowing after infecting the bacteria. The test uses a fluorescent microscope to detect the glow and the presence of disease-causing bacteria, and takes only a few hours. — MTS
Journal: Biotechnology Progress
Journal Article: “Detection of Escherichia coli with Fluorescent Labeled Phages That Have a Broad Host Range to E. coli in Sewage Water”
Scientists studying the cloudy emulsions produced by anise-flavored liquors such as Ouzo have discovered new molecular insights into their formation, findings that could lead to the design of better commercial emulsions used in making pharmaceuticals, food products, cosmetics and other materials. Their study is scheduled for the Feb. 19 issue of ACS’ Langmuir, a bi-weekly publication.
Although transparent when bottled, Ouzo, Pastis, Pernod, and other popular anise-flavored alcoholic beverages form milky-white emulsions when diluted with water prior to drinking, a phenomenon commonly known as the “Ouzo effect.” These emulsions occur spontaneously and are stable for weeks and even months, a feature that is attractive to industry. However, scientists are unclear how these mixtures form and stabilize.
In the new study, Erik van der Linden and colleagues measured the stability of various emulsions prepared from commercial Pernod and compared the results to theoretical predictions of their formation. The scientists found that their experimental observations were often opposite the predicted behavior of the emulsions in the presence of various concentrations of oil, water, and alcohol components. “More knowledge of the parameters that determine the stability of these emulsions, besides interfacial tension, solubility, and density difference, might lead to better control of the emulsification process,” the study states. — MTS
Scientists in Japan are reporting the discovery of a new transportation technology for moving ultra-small cargoes in the coming generation of micromachines and laboratories-on-a-chip. The report by Kenichi Yoshikawa and colleagues is scheduled for the March 6 issue of ACS’ Journal of Physical Chemistry, a weekly publication.
The study describes successful delivery of a simulated microcargo of paper with chemical waves produced by a reaction that has fascinated scientists and students for 50 years. Termed the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction, it produces a continuing series of waves in a water solution.
In the report, researchers describe the first use of those waves to move objects in a directed, controlled fashion. “They can be used for the transport of material objects through a desired delivery route,” the report states. “The combination of carrying and controlling waves with the proper timing of initiation allows us, in principle, to deliver freight over a chosen path, with the ability to switch the path if desired.” — MW
W The next generation of electric and hybrid cars may be a step closer thanks to new and improved polymer membranes that allow the development of bigger, safer, and more powerful lithium ion batteries, according to an article http://pubs.acs.org/cen/business/86/8607bus2.html] scheduled for the Feb. 18 issue of Chemical & Engineering News, ACS’ weekly newsmagazine.
In the article, C&EN Senior Editor Alexander H. Tullo notes that polymer membranes are already an essential component of lithium ion batteries that power iPods, laptop computers, and other portable electronic devices. These porous, hair-thin separators control the flow of electrons through the battery. Their failure can result in overheating and even fires. Such problems have recently prompted the widespread recall of millions of lithium ion batteries.
Tullo points out that lithium ion batteries will need to be bigger, safer, and more powerful if they are to be used effectively in motor vehicles. For that purpose, improved polymer separators are needed. Recently, battery manufacturers have stepped up to this challenge by developing new polymer separators with greater porosity for improved power flow and stronger insulation materials for improved safety. At least one manufacturer is already using a new type of polymer separators in a new line of electric vehicles, while other advanced polymers are making their way through the development pipeline, according to the article. “The reality of driving to work under electric power may only be a hair away,” Tullo says.
Journalists covering Black History Month can obtain a variety of resources from the ACS Office of Communications during February. The resources include a news release honoring the contributions of three African-American chemists: George Washington Carver, Percy Julian, and Norbert Rillieux. Their contributions include new uses for peanuts and other crops grown in the South, a drug to fight blindness, and a sugar refining process. The ACS has designated each of their achievements as National Historic Chemical Landmarks. The resources also include a Kids Science version of the news release, written for a school-age audience, and a Bytesize Science podcast for young listeners about the contributions of these chemists.
The 2008 edition of the ACS Office of Communications’ popular news media tour/briefing/reception heads for a premier research facility where science connects with everyday life. Reporters will visit the U. S. Department of Agriculture’s Southern Regional Research Center (SRRC) in New Orleans. After recovery from Hurricane Katrina’s devastation, SRRC is continuing a 66-year heritage of discovery. SRRC’s landmarks range from development of wrinkle-resistant cotton fabrics to battling the dreaded Formosan subterranean termite in the “Second Battle of New Orleans.” The event begins mid-afternoon on April 7 during the ACS’ 235th national meeting, followed by a reception. To register, contact Michael Woods (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Mark your calendars for one of the year’s largest and most important scientific events — the 235th National Meeting and Exposition of the American Chemical Society (ACS), which will be held April 6-10, 2008, in New Orleans, La.
With more than 160,000 members in the United States and other countries, ACS is the world’s largest scientific society. About 12,000 scientists and others are expected for the event, which will include more than 9,000 reports on new discoveries in chemistry. Those reports span science’s horizons from astronomy to zoology and include a special focus on health, energy, food, environment, and alternative fuels.
In addition to coverage of breaking science news, the meeting provides an opportunity for independent reporting on disaster recovery efforts in the region prior to the June 1 start of the 2008 hurricane season.
For media registration, please click here. Housing reservations are now open for those who plan to attend the meeting. The ACS Press Center will be located in Room 206 of the Ernest N. Morial Convention Center. It will include a media workroom with staff to assist in arranging interviews, press conferences, wireless Internet access, telephones, computers, photocopy and fax services, and refreshments.
For reporters planning to cover the meeting from their home bases, the ACS Office of Communications will provide an expanded suite of resources, including press releases, non-technical summaries of research presentations, and access to news briefings.
The American Chemical Society — the world’s largest scientific society — is a nonprofit organization chartered by the U.S. Congress and a global leader in providing access to chemistry-related research through its multiple databases, peer-reviewed journals and scientific conferences. Its main offices are in Washington, D.C., and Columbus, Ohio.