Does sugar cause diabetes?

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Reactions Science Videos | May 26, 2021

In the U.S., diabetes is very common — 1 in 10 people have it, and tens of thousands of people die from it every year. If you have diabetes, you have way too much sugar in your bloodstream. So does eating a lot of sugar cause it?

Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, and fruit juice and incidence of type 2 diabetes: systematic review, meta-analysis, and estimation of population attributable fraction

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Reiser, S., et al., Isocaloric exchange of dietary starch and sucrose in humans. II. Effect on fasting blood insulin, glucose, and glucagon and on insulin and glucose response to a sucrose load. Am J Clin Nutr, 1979. 32(11): p. 2206-16.  
Hallfrisch, J., et al., Effects of dietary fructose on plasma glucose and hormone responses in normal and hyperinsulinemic men. J Nutr, 1983. 113(9): p. 1819-26.

Reiser, S., et al., Serum insulin and glucose in hyperinsulinemic subjects fed three different levels of sucrose. Am J Clin Nutr, 1981. 34(11): p. 2348-58.

Schwarz, J.M., et al., Effect of a High-Fructose Weight-Maintaining Diet on Lipogenesis and Liver Fat. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2015. 100(6): p. 2434-42.

Aeberli I, Hochuli M, Gerber PA, Sze L, Murer SB, Tappy L, Spinas GA, Berneis K. Moderate amounts of fructose consumption impair insulin sensitivity in healthy young men: a randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care. 2013 Jan;36(1):150-6.
Stanhope KL, Schwarz JM, Keim NL, Griffen SC, Bremer AA, Graham JL, Hatcher B, Cox CL, Dyachenko A, Zhang W, McGahan JP, Seibert A, Krauss RM, Chiu S, Schaefer EJ, Ai M, Otokozawa S, Nakajima K, Nakano T, Beysen C, Hellerstein MK, Berglund L, Havel PJ. Consuming fructose-sweetened, not glucose-sweetened, beverages increases visceral adiposity and lipids and decreases insulin sensitivity in overweight/obese humans. J Clin Invest. 2009 May;119(5):1322-34.

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