Loofah plant seeds absorb organic pollutants and heavy metals from wastewater

WASHINGTON, June 19, 2013 — Seeds and oils from the plant that produces the loofah sponge could help purify wastewater and prevent the spread of waterborne diseases in the developing world, according to a scientist speaking today at the 17th Annual Green Chemistry & Engineering Conference in Bethesda, Md. The low-cost, biodegradable seeds and substances made from oils of these seeds are particularly effective at absorbing heavy metals and other potentially harmful organic compounds from polluted water, he said.

The conference, which regularly attracts scientific leaders from around the world, is sponsored by the American Chemical Society’s Green Chemistry Institute®.

Adewale Adewuyi, Ph.D., a lecturer at Redeemer’s University in Mowe, Nigeria, notes that rain water, rivers and streams are the most common direct sources of drinking water in many developing countries. Often, this water is polluted with substances from factories and agricultural runoff, which can harm both people and animals. In 2010, for instance, lead poisoning in Nigeria — which was later linked to industrial wastewater — claimed the lives of more than 500 children in less than seven months, he reported.

Absorbents, such as activated carbon, can help absorb these pollutants from water. However, they work slowly, are only effective in a limited pH range and are expensive. To help overcome this problem, Adewuyi turned to the seeds of the Luffa cylindrica plant. This plant, commonly known as sponge gourd, produces sponge-like fruit — loofahs — that are used as bathing brushes by millions of people worldwide. But Adewuyi says the seeds, which are plentiful, are considered environmental waste. As a result, they are underutilized.

In laboratory tests, he isolated oil from L. cylindrica seeds and used it to produce detergent-like substances called surfactants. These surfactants enhanced the seed’s absorption capacity in cleaning wastewater. He found the new product was cheaper and more effective than existing absorbents. Adewuyi is currently exploring whether other underutilized seeds and oils could have the same effect.

“It’s a win-win process,” he says. “It’s cost-effective, green, reproducible and, of course, applicable in developing countries because it is very easy to start up and maintain.”


The ACS Green Chemistry Institute® is an organization focused on catalyzing and enabling the implementation of green chemistry and engineering throughout the global chemical enterprise. ACS GCI operates industrial roundtables; conducts conferences, seminars and training; maintains an international network of 26 green chemistry chapters; and with its partner NSF International, led the effort to establish the first consensus standard for greener chemical products and process information in the United States.

The American Chemical Society is a nonprofit organization chartered by the U.S. Congress. With more than 163,000 members, ACS is the world's largest scientific society and a global leader in providing access to chemistry-related research through its multiple databases, peer-reviewed journals and scientific conferences. Its main offices are in Washington, D.C., and Columbus, Ohio.

Media Contact

Christiana Briddell
Cell: 510-684-6791