Bongkrekic (or bongkrek) acid, produced in fermented coconut by a pathovar of the bacterium Burkholderia gladioli, is a more potent respiratory toxin than cyanide. Its first total synthesis was reported by E. J. Corey and A. Tramontano in 1984, and M. Shindo and co-workers described improved syntheses in 2004 and 2009. Most recently, S. V. Ley used three stereospecific palladium cross-coupling reactions to accomplish an even better synthesis.
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