Eritoran, a complex molecule with two hexose rings and two phosphate groups, blocks the inflammation pathway mediated by Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4. This mechanism is present in sepsis, but late-stage clinical trials on eritoran failed to show activity against that condition.
Recently, S. N. Vogel and colleagues at the University of Maryland, Baltimore, showed that eritoran combats flu in rodents. Instead of attacking the flu virus, it treats TLR 4–related inflammation and prevents lung damage.
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