- John F. Daniell, born 1790, inventor of the Daniell electrochemical cell.
- Gustav R. Kirchhoff, born 1824, co invented spectroscope (1859); in 1860, codiscovered cesium (Cs, 55); in 1861, codiscovered rubidium (Rb, 37); discovered substances which emit radiation absorb same type of radiation when cool (Kirchhoff's Law).
- Charles Friedel, born 1832, researcher on synthesis of benzene homologues (Friedel-Crafts reaction).
- William H. Perkin, born 1838, discovered mauve, the first aniline dye (1856); discovered coumarin; In 1861, codiscovered Perkin reaction for condensation of unsaturated aromatic acids (1861); synthesized tartaric acid.
- Michael Polanyi, born 1891, researcher on reaction kinetics and crystal structures.
- Leslie G. S. Brooker, born 1902, researcher in chemistry of photography.
- Joseph Priestley, born 1733; in 1774, discovered oxygen (O,8); disovered ammonia, hydrochloric acid gas, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and oxides of nitrogen.
- Paul Ehrlich, born 1854, researcher in immunity and chemotherapy; discovered Salvarsan (No. 606) and neosalvarsan; improved laboratory staining methods; Nobel Prize in Medicine (1908).
- Thomas L. Willson, born 1860, developed electrothermal furnace; pioneer manufacturer of calcium carbide.
- Albert Einstein, born 1879, researched the photochemical effect; introduced theory of relativity; Nobel Prize in Physics (1921).
- Ronald C. D. Breslow, born 1931, demonstrated antiaromaticity; invented artificial enzymes and electrochemical methods for carbon cation; President of the American Chemical Society (1996).
- The observation of the first atom of element 108 occurred at the GSI Laboratory, in Darmstadt, Germany, in 1984.
- Johann Joseph Loschmidt, born 1821, developed Loschmidt number (number of molecules in a cubic centimeter of gas) and space-filling formulas of many organic compounds.
- Hermann W. Vogel, born 1834, invented orthochromatic photographic plate (1873); designed photometer; researcher in spectroscopic photography.
- Carl Löwig, born 1803, one discoverer of Bromine; discovered many bromine compounds; founded the Silesian chemical industry.
- Lauren B. Hitchcock, born 1900, expert in chemistry of environment.