- Edwin H. Land, born 1909, invented inexpensive filters for a polarizing light; invented instant polaroid photography and Polaroid Land camera; founded Polaroid Corporation.
- Sidney Altman, born 1939, proved that ribonucleic acid (RNA) can act as catalyst in cells; Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1989).
- Bohuslav Brauner, born 1855, researcher in chemistry of tellurium and rare earths; predicted existence of promethium (Pm, 61).
- Nevil V. Sidgwick, born 1873, researcher on molecular structure and theory of valency.
- Edward Weston, born 1850, improved nickel plating.
- James C. Irvine, born 1877, researcher on chemistry of sugars.
- Francois M. Raoult, born 1830, discovered vapor pressure of solution is proportional to number of molecules per unit volume in solution (Raoult's law).
- Robert Bunsen & Gustav R. Kirchhoff, announced the discovery of cesium (Cs, 55) in 1860.
- Donald F. Othmer, born 1904, co-founder and editor of Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology; chemical engineer who developed Othmner still.
- Justus von Liebig, born 1803, "Father of agricultural chemistry"; perfected methods for quantitative organic analysis; developed Leibig condenser; divided foods into fats, carbohydrates, & protein.
- William F. Giauque, born 1895, researcher on thermodynamics, particularly behavior of substances at extremely low temperatures; Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1949).
- Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin, born 1910, determined structure of vitamin B12 using X-rays; Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1964).
- Ronald Ross, born 1857, discovered that malaria was transmitted by Anopheles mosquito; Nobel Prize in Medicine (1902).