- Carl Bosch, born 1874, researched chemical reactions at high pressure; commercially produced ammonia; Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1931).
- Edwin Drake discovered petroleum in Pennsylvania in 1859.
- Martin Kamen, born 1913, codicovered carbon-14 (1940).
- George H. Whipple, born 1878, conducted research on pernicious anemia and diabetes; Nobel Prize in Medicine (1934).
- Hermann J. P. Sprengel, born 1834, researched discharge tubes; invented vacuum pump.
- First atom of element 109 (meitnerium) was observed at GSI Laboratory, Darmstadt, Germany, in 1982.
- Jacobus H. van't Hoff, born 1852, proposed tetrahedral carbon; conducted research on physical chemistry of reaction velocity, thermodynamics, and theory of dilute solutions; the first Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1901).
- Ernest Rutherford, born 1871, formulated theory of radioactive decay (1903), discovered atomic nucleus (1911), made first nuclear transmutation (1919); Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1908).
- Theodor Svedberg, born 1884, conducted research on ultracentrifuge for determining molecular weights and sizes of proteins; Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1926).
- Michel E. Chevreul, born 1786, conducted research on dyes and physics of color; discovered stearin and margarine.
- Frederick A. Paneth, born 1887, conducted research on age of rocks by measuring helium formed.
- Carl Auer von Welsbach, born 1858, researched rare earths; invented incandescent mantle; in 1885, discovered neodymium (Nd, 60) and praseodymium (Pr, 59); in 1907 codiscovered lutetium (Lu, 71).
- B. Smith Hopkins, born 1873, conducted research on rare earths.
- Francis W. Aston, born 1877, introduced mass spectrograph (1919); Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1922).
- Rohm & Haas Company founded in 1909.
- Wilhelm Ostwald, born 1853, researched affinity, mass action, theories of solutions, and conductivity (Ostwald's law of dilution and conductivity); Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1909).
- Frederick Soddy, born 1877, discovered displacement law of radioactive change; researcher in radioactivity and isotopes; Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1921).