- Peter Cooper Hewitt obtained a U. S. patent for mercury vapor lamp in 1901.
- Edwin M. McMillan, born 1907, codiscovered neptunium (Np, 93); in 1940, codiscovered plutonium (Pu, 94); Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1951).
- Alexandre M. Butlerov presented first definition and use of term "chemical structure" before Speyer Congress in 1861.
- James Dewar, born 1842, showed many common substances phosphoresce at liquid air temperature; codeveloped cordite; in 1892, invented vacuum flask (Dewar flask); first person to liquefy hydrogen (1899).
- Louis P. Cailletet, born 1832, researched liquefaction of gases, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and air.
- Michael Faraday, born 1791, discovered electromagnetic induction, specific inductive capacity, Faraday's laws on electrolysis, and rotation of plane-polarized light in magnetic field; liquefied chlorine.
- First liquid chlorine shipped in U.S. by Electro-Bleaching Gas Company, Niagara Falls, NY, in 1909.
- John Sheehan, born 1915, synthesized penicillin-V (1957).
- Clifford G. Shull, born 1915, researcher in using neutrons to study atomic structure of materials; Nobel Prize in Physics (1994).