What molecule am I?
Apixaban1 is an anticoagulant drug that was first described in several mid-2000s patent applications. In one such filing, Rafael Shapiro and co-inventors at Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS, New York City) disclose processes for preparing 4,5-dihydro-pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyrid-2-ones, of which apixaban is an example. A patent, US 7,396,932, was awarded in 2008.
BMS and Pfizer (New York) codeveloped apixaban under the brand name Eliquis. The drug was approved for use by the European Medicines Agency in 2011 and by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2012.
Apixaban is used to treat or prevent blood clots, including deep vein thrombosis, which can lead to pulmonary embolism. It can also prevent stroke in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. It is often given to patients after hip or knee replacement surgery to prevent clotting during recovery. It is administered orally and is safer and more convenient than warfarin, the medication previously used for these purposes.
Apixaban’s mode of action is factor Xa inhibition. Factor Xa is activated by the hydrolysis of factor X, an enzyme that is a component of the coagulation (clotting) cascade. Factor Xa, in turn, catalyzes the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin, the enzyme that promotes the formation of fibrin clots.
1. 1H-Pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridine-3-carboxamide, 4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-7-oxo-6-[4-(2-oxo-1-piperidinyl)phenyl]-.
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