Simulations & Videos for

# Lesson 2.1: Heat, Temperature, and Conduction

### Video Room Temperature Washers in Hot Water

• When room-temperature washers are placed in hot water, the temperature of the washers increases and the temperature of the water decreases.
• Energy from the water is transferred to the washers.

### Video Hot Washers in Room-Temperature Water

• When hot washers are placed in room-temperature water, the temperature of the washers decreases and the temperature of the water increases.
• Energy from the washers is transferred to the water.

### Interactive Heated Spoon

• Molecules in the hot water are moving faster than the atoms in the spoon. Faster-moving water molecules strike the atoms of the spoon, transferring some of their energy to them.
• The atoms in the spoon move faster (increasing temperature) and the molecules in the water move slower (decreasing temperature).
• When fast-moving atoms or molecules hit slower-moving atoms or molecules and increase their speed, heat is transferred. This process is called conduction.

### Interactive Cooled Spoon

• The atoms in the hot spoon are moving faster than the water molecules.
• Faster-moving atoms in the spoon strike the water molecules, transferring some of their energy to them.
• The atoms in the spoon move slower (decreasing temperature) and the water molecules move faster (increasing temperature).
• When fast-moving atoms or molecules hit slower-moving atoms or molecules and increase their speed, heat is transferred. This process is called conduction.

### Image Room-temperature Spoon in Hot Water (Before and After)

• Draw motion lines in the 'After' picture to show that heat was transferred when the spoon was placed in the water.

### Image Hot Spoon in Room-Temperature Water (Before and After)

• Draw motion lines in the 'After' picture to show that heat was transferred when the spoon was placed in the water.

### InteractiveTemperature

• At any temperature, the particles (atoms and molecules) of a substance, in this case a gas, move at different speeds. If energy is added by heating, the particles move faster. If energy is removed by cooling, the particles move more slowly.
• Any moving object, no matter how big or small, and no matter how slow or fast, has kinetic energy. Therefore, the moving particles of a gas, or any substance, all have kinetic energy.
• The temperature of a substance is the average of the different kinetic energies of its atoms or molecules.

Note: After pressing “Start”, the simulation works best if you cycle through all the buttons before using it for instruction with students.

### Interactive Conducting Energy

• The molecules in your finger are moving faster than the molecules in the room-temperature metal. But because metal is a good conductor, the heat from your finger is transferred to the metal. This decreases the motion of the molecules in your skin and makes your skin feel colder.
• The molecules in your finger are moving faster than the molecules in the room-temperature cardboard. But because cardboard is a poor conductor, the heat energy from your finger is barely transferred to the cardboard. Since the motion of molecules in your skin stays about the same, your skin feels normal.